1. The world did not exist from eternity. It has come into existence after not being. Everything in it comes into existence, and then perishes, and it is obvious that this principle of transitoriness applies to the world as a whole. One has to seek for the cause of these changes, and, ultimately, for the primal cause of existence of world. It is impossible to think that certain portion of the world is quiescent, and is the source of the movement and of the changes in the other portion, because if the world is ultimately one, there cannot exist such a duality. Going up the chain of causation, one comes to a transcendent cause, the Primal Actor (Faa'il), whose production (Maf'ul) the world is. He is the one who has brought it into existence, while the world is something that has been brought into being.

2. The “Maker” (Saani) of the world must necessarily possess Absolute Reality; His non-existence is impossibility. Everything in this changing world depends on Him, and can only continue by His existence. Our created intellects are incapable of understanding His properties, qualities and attributes. They are beyond the experience of our senses, limits of our reason and the power of our imagination.

3. He (the Creator) is One, that is, not one of His kind, but simple in His Substance. His nature excludes every implication of plurality, composition or variety. His working has no similarity with the action, potentiality implied in elements or causation. His being the source of all existence implies His being Absolute; and His Oneness implies His being Eternal, and free in His actions, which do not depend on any outside impulse. Human intellect cannot understand His nature by direct cognition. It can know Him only in so far as an idea of Him is innate, and is laid in the design under the scheme of creation.

4. The “Maker” of the world is eternal. This is deduction from our experience of the world, so far as our intellect is capable of understanding it. The term eternal is applied to one whose existence has no beginning, and cannot be negativated.

5. He has not material body. (Jism).

6. He is neither a Substance nor Accidence of things created.

7. He is neither matter, nor form of created things, because both these depend on something beyond them.

8. He does not in any way depend on His creatures, nor is He in need of anything from them; the created entirely depend on Him, and exist only through His will.

9. There are no deities besides Him. He is beyond all comparison, definition, and limit and beyond being comprehended by the senses, reason, or thought.

10. He does not resemble anything in this transient world, and does not come under any category applicable to created things or beings.

11. No names, i.e. attributes, can be associated with Him. A name indicates some peculiarity by which one thing in its class differs from similar things. He, being beyond comparison, and transcending human comprehension, cannot possess any such peculiarities.

12. He has no limits, by which He could be defined or limited.

13. Negation of properties, which some people ascribe to the Creator, is a correct form of belief, because their recognition clashes with the idea of absolute unity of His nature. Properties can be either external, as in physical bodies (colour, weight etc.), or internal, as knowledge, or ignorance, etc. The nature of Creator does not permit application of idea of anything internal or external to it. His real properties, which He may possess, are beyond our comprehension. We can only postulate some of His abstract properties such as His being eternal, etc.

14. He is not in space.

15. He is not in time. Both these qualifications are applicable only to His creatures.


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