16. Allah is eternal, living, the One, Indivisible, the Head of the universe (as-Samad). He never ceases to be the First. However far our imagination traces the source of existence, and never ceases to be the Last, as he has no limits, by which He can be limited; no time can express His age. He is the Creator (khaaliq) of things, their Renovator, after they cease to exist. He is never affected by illnesses or fatigue, neither moves nor rests. He did not shape the world after any model (that existed prior to the creation), but produced it from nothing (ibteda'an, from the beginning). The principle part of His worship is the attainment of knowledge (ma'refat) of Him, complete recognition of Him, expressed in the profession of tawheed (oneness), belief in His absolute unity.

The proper form of the principle of tawheed is the negation of all attributes, or properties which the human mind attributes to the things created. Allah Himself proofs to mankind about Himself. His recognition forms the substance of the faith of all reasonable creatures. Proofs of His existence are laid in the innate religious instinct or sense, contained in the prototypal nature (fitrat) of the man. His miracles which He works are veils (hijaab) between the Creator and the created. There is no religiousness without the search for knowledge.

17. There cannot be two (or more) gods, sharing the position which the faithful recognize as that belonging to One Allah, because one of them must necessarily be the principal, or all of them could not be omnipotent as being limited by others.

18. Human speech is powerless to express the ideas which are connected with the real nature of Allah. Words convey ideas, derived form the experience of created things, their similarity or difference, etc., while Allah must necessarily be quite different from His creatures.

(‘Aqaaid no. 19, 20, 21, and 22 gives the explanation of the existence of this world in its highly philosophical way in a great depth.)

19. The visible world comes from the source (mabda') endowed with perceptible properties, sifaat . Allah, as shown above, is beyond human comprehension, and His real attributes or properties cannot be comprehended by the human mind or senses. Thus there must be an intermediary entity, brought into existence by Allah, that is, the first of created things, through which the perceptible and conceivable properties are introduced into the world. This is a great benefit bestowed by Allah upon mankind, who otherwise would not be able to understand the world around them. This first source, mabda', is the initiator of the world. This principle is that which came into existence first, and which occupies the highest position in the scale of creations. The evolution of the world received its relative reality (haqq) from the existence of mabda'. It is the limit of the possible intellectual ascension of the creations.

This would not have been possible if this mabda' were not a creature (mawjood); but while being the first creation, it has direct touch with Absolute Reality. And it cannot also be really the first mawjood unless it is one, and thus perfect in nature, as the first immediate cause (‘illat) of the created world. In this quality, the mawjood must be permanent and unchangeable, must be omniscient, omnipotent and possessing all the perfect attributes. The principle attribute or quality (sifat) of this principle (mawjood) is life (hayaat), which is fundamental. Life is the center; all other qualities originate, or radiate from it. All things follow it in existence through the existence of Life.

20. The Primal Source (mabda') of the world is infinite, but has a beginning in time. It is only one, has no rival, and is unchangeable. It acts in accordance with the principles of logic. It is perfect in its nature, and comes short of Divinity only in its being dependent for its existence on its Creator. This is the only imperfection which it possesses. Its substance is simple, free from plurality. Its properties (sifaat) become apparent only by comparison with something that is not itself.

21. There cannot be two primal sources; if they were, there would be a split and no balance in the world. There can be only one initial source, endowed with perfect attributes, free from imperfections in all that reached it from the Creator (maajid) , who is the only source of being, One after whom nothing can be imagined. This Primal Source of the universe is what the Rasulullah (SAWS) in his revelation symbolically calls the Qalam, or the Heavenly Pen.

22. The Primal Entity (mawjood) is not self-existing, and depends for its existence on the Most High. It is, in philosophy, called the Primal Conscious Principle. It cannot be recognized by the intellect, but can be perceived by intuition (zameer), and not by pondering over it.

23. Belief in Angels. They exist, and are of different ranks and kinds, known under different names, entrusted with different duties; they possess different functions in the spiritual (‘aqli) world, in the cosmic (falaki) system, and in the physical (tabee'i) forces. Belief in angels is based on the Qur'an, which, surely, would not tell anything that is false. Man can see them only at the moment of death.

24. Belief in Jinns. They also really exist; there is no doubt about this. They are of different varieties. Some of them are benignant, others malignant. They are spirits, and their nature consists of fiery, airy, or dusty substances; some of them are faithful Muslims, others are kafirs. They are invisible to man's eye.

25. Wahy, or Divine inspiration, is what the mind (nafs) of the Rasulullah (SAWS) receives through his intellect (‘aql), in the way of revelation, from the Will (amr) of the Allah. It does not come into conflict with the intellectual powers of the reasoning soul, that is, human mind or common sense. The difference between revelation, wahy, and other forms of knowledge is that wahy repeatedly descends upon the bearer, independently of his own will. It cannot be either superfluous or deficient, as may be the case of knowledge depending on human personal efforts.

26. Apostleship (Risaalat) is of two kinds: ordinary (‘aam), and special (khaas). The first is concerned with the character and intellect. These also belong to the special Apostleship. The ordinary Prophet is concerned with the duniya, or the matters of this world. The special Apostle deals also with the aakherat or life after death. Apostleship is an eternal divine institution, which is at work from the time of Hazrat Adam (AS). It always remains within one family (nasl) of the Prophets. The Prophet exceeds all ordinary mortals in his intellect. He is the teacher, guide, and cultural instructor of mankind. The purpose of his mission is the development of the higher faculties of mankind, leading them away from the brutality and bestiality, by imposition of law, either by force or by mercy, by promise of reward or punishment. Every Prophet continues the work started and continued by his predecessors.

27. Prophets are never born from parents of loose morals, or in the family of godless people. Several Biblical legends and hadees are quoted to prove the noble descent of the Rasulullah (SAWS) and Hazrat Ali (AS).

28. The rank of Prophet Hood (nubuwwat) is the highest which human being can attain. The Apostle of Allah surpasses every human being in the aspect of virtue and knowledge; everything in mankind and the physical world is under his authority. What he says is truth, which cannot be either disputed or contradicted. He is the one leader of mankind, who depends on Divine revelation, but never upon the help of man.

29. Our Mohammad Rasulullah (SAWS) is the greatest (afzal) of all the Apostles. Six proofs of this are given:

•  Allah addresses other Prophets (ambeyaa, pl. of Nabi) by name, as “O Ibraheem, O Nooh,” etc., while Allah addresses Rasulullah (SAWS) simply as, “O Prophet, O Apostle” (thus recognizing him only as the Apostle, par excellence ).

•  Allah made him the nearest to Himself in the discharge of his mission, and commanded love for his family (Ahl-ul-Bayt (as)).

•  Allah greeted different Prophets, but sent special greeting only to the Family of Rasulullah (SAWS) in the Surah Yaseen.

•  Allah made his Shari'at final, not to be abrogated, and instituted the Imaamat in his descendants, to continue to the Day of Judgement.

•  Allah made him an intercessor for mankind, although He did not do this in the case of any other Prophet.

•  The miracles of all the other Prophets disappeared after them, while the miracle of Rasulullah (SAWS), the Qur'an, remains, and will remain till the Day of Judgement.

30. There are twelve proofs that Maulana Ali (AS) was appointed by Saiyed ul-Mursaleen Mohammad Rasulullah (SAWS) as the executor of his will (Wasi) after him:

•  The appointment (wasiyyat) is commanded in the Qur'an.

•  Appointing an executor is prescribed by Rasulullah (SAWS) himself, in his tradition ( hadees ).

•  The Qur'an specially emphasizes the necessity of the wasiyyat in religious matters, more than in those connected with property.

•  No one is exempted from the command to appoint an executor.

•  The predecessors of the Rasulullah (SAWS), the great Prophets, always appointed their wasis from amongst their sons or near relatives.

•  The belief that the Rasulullah (SAWS) did not die intestate.

•  The belief that the Rasulullah (SAWS) promised punishment to those who return to idolatry after him.

•  Rasulullah (SAWS) appointed Maulana Ali (AS) as his lieutenant in Medina before the war of Tabook, just as Hazrat Moosa (AS) appointed Hazrat Haroon (AS) as his lieutenant.

•  Rasulullah (SAWS) who ordered us to appoint an executor of one's will could not violate his own commandment.

•  Rasulullah (SAWS) himself commanded every general to appoint his successor in case of accidental death.

•  Rasulullah (SAWS) appointed Hazrat Ali (AS) as the most revered member of his family, to whom he entrusted his associates, commanded them to follow him. He also left to Hazrat Ali (AS) his Book (Qur'an), sword, and many other items of his property.

•  Rasulullah (SAWS) on several occasions openly called Hazrat Ali (AS) his brother, exalting his position above everybody else's.


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