Ten years after the Hijrat , Rasoolullaah (saws) instructed his close followers to announce and invite the people from different places to join him in his last Hajj Baytullaah . On this Hajj , he taught them how to perform the arkaan (rituals) of Hajj in a correct and unified manner. This was the first time when Muslims with this magnitude gathered in one place in the presence of their Maula , Rasoolullaah (saws) . After completing Hajjat ul-Wadaa', Rasoolullaah (saws) left Makkah towards Madeenah, where he and the crowd reached a place named Ghadeer al-Khumm, which is close to today's al-Juhfah. The date of this event was the 18 th Zulhajjah of the year 10 AH i.e. 10 March 632 AD . It was a place where people from different locations used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes. In this place, the following Qur'ani Aayat was revealed:
“O Rasool! Deliver what has been came upon you from your Rabb, and if you do not do it, then (it will be as if) you have not delivered His message (at all), and surely Allah will provide you ‘Ismat- protect you from mischief of people.”
It is noteworthy that the words and peculiar constriction of this Aayat show that it refers to some very important order which Allah commands His Rasool to convey to the people and that order and message has such significance that if it was not conveyed it would mean that Rasoolullaah (saws) did not carry out function of Risaalat and Walaayat . The word of this Aayat,
“Ma Unzila Elaika”,
That is, “what has been sent down to you” give a very clear direction that specific instruction had already been communicated to Rasoolullaah (saws) and now it should be conveyed to the people of Ummat at large. The last sentence in the above Aayat indicates that Rasoolullaah (saws) was aware of the consequences and serious reaction of his Ummat in delivering that message, but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Rasool from people. Upon receiving the ‘ Ismat confirmation precisely, through the above Aayat, as divine protection, for which he was awaited specifically, Rasoolullaah (saws) stopped on that place, the pond of Khumm, which was extremely hot. Then he sent personnel to the people who have been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all Hujjaj who were behind, arrived and gathered. He ordered Salamaan ul-Farsi to prepare a Minbar so he could make especial announcement and deliver a Khutbah. It was around noon time in the first of the fall, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their body, and were sitting around the Minbar. On this day, Rasoolullaah (saws) spent approximately five hours in that place; three hours of which he was on the Minbar . He recited nearly one hundred Aayaat from the Qur'an , and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a long Khutbah . The following is a part of his Khutbah which has been widely narrated nearly by all outstanding Islamic historians. Rasoolullaah (saws) declared:
"It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny that is my Ahl ul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Jannat)."
Rasoolullaah (saws) at Ghadeer-Khumm led the Salaat ush-Shukar. After completing Salaat, Rasoolullaah (saws) took the hand of ‘Ali and raised it up. Then Rasoolullaah (S.) continued:
"Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?"
People cried and answered: "Yes, O Rasoolullaah (saws)!"
Then, followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the spiritual and temporal head and Maula of the Ummat. Rasoolullaah (saws) holds the hand of 'Ali and said:
|"For whomever I am his Maula, now 'Ali is his Maula." [In some narrations the word used was Wali rather than Maula - with the same implication] Rasoolullaah (saws) continued: "O Allah, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."
These were the key notes of the Khutbah of Rasoolullaah (saws). Immediately after Rasoolullaah (saws) completed his Khutbah , the following Aayat of the Qur'an appeared:
"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favor upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.”
The above Aayat clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of Wasaayat-Walaayat as well as leadership after Rasoolullaah (saws) was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the immediate successor of the Nabi. The Du'a he offered, is a unique by nature - shivering would begin, if one understand its meaning:
|"O my Allah! Be a friend of him who is a friend of Ali, and be an enemy of one who bears enmity to Ali, help him who assists Ali and forsake him who will forsake Ali.”
After his Khutbah, Rasoolullaah (saws) asked everybody to give the Misaaq-Bay'at to Ali and congratulate him. Among those who did so was Umar bin al-Khattab submitted as follows:
"Bakhin Bakhin Laka”
Congratulation to you! Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the Maula of all believing men and women." Allah ordered His Rasool to inform the people of this designation at a time of crowded populous so that all could become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred thousand. The news spread quickly all over urban and rural areas.
Following verse has composed by Ameer ul-Mumineen Maulana Ali (as), in which he described his coronation ceremony:
“ Faawjaba Lee Wilayatahu Alaikum;
Rasoolullaahe Yawma Ghadire Khumi”
Rasoolullaah (saws) has declared obligatory my Walaayat upon you (O the Ummah) on the day of Ghadeer-e-Khumm.
When Haaris bin Nu'maan al-Fahri or Nazar bin Haaris according to another tradition, came to know of it, he rode his camel and came to Madeenah and went to Rasoolullaah (saws) and said to him: "You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the Salaat five farz a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe Siyaam during the month of Ramaazan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer Hajj at Makkah and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and imposed him upon us as our master by saying `Ali is the Maula of whom I am Maula .' Is this imposition from Allah or from you?" Rasoolullaah (saws) said:
"Wallaah! Who is the only God! This is from Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious."
On hearing this Haaris turned back and proceeded towards his she-camel saying: "O Allah! If what Mohammad said is correct then fling on us a stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture." He had not reached his she-camel when Allah, flung at him a stone which struck him on his head, penetrated his body and passed out through his lower body and turned him dead. On this occasion following Aayat appeared:
"A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of the Ascent."