Glossary
 
 
 
I - J - K - L

 

I

‘Ibaadat

Worship; “ ‘ibaadat-e-‘amaliyya” means worship of Allah performed by bodily actions or good deeds; “'ibaadat-e-zaahira-‘amaliyya” means physical exoteric worship as contrasted to “ ‘ibaadat-e-baatina ‘ilmiyya” means spiritual esoteric worship. Namaaz is one of the part of ‘Ibaadat.

Iblees

Devil; In Quran it refers to the Shaitaan (devil, demon), mostly when he is said to have refused to bow down before Adam. He was a jinn and his name was Haris bin Murrah. “a'uzo billahe minash shaitaa nir rajeem” is uttered before the recitation of Quran which means ‘I take refuge with Allah from Shaitaan, the cursed.'

Ibn; bin

Son, offspring; “ibn-e-Aadam” means man, human being.

Ibraaheem; Abraham

A prophet of Allah; he and his son Ismaa'eel (A.S.) built Ka'bah more than 3000 years ago in Makkah, towards which all Muslims face for their namaaz .

Ibtedaa

Beginning, start.

‘Iddat

The waiting period of 4 months and 10 days; Legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced.

Idraak

Perception, awareness, consciousness.

‘Id ul-azhaa; Bakra Eid

Festival of Sacrifice; The ritual slaughter of a permissible animal is performed in the commemoration of Hazrat Ibraaheem (AS) and Hazrat Ismaa'eel (AS).

Id ul-Fitr; Ramzaan Eid

Festival of breaking the Ramzaan fast; After fasting for 30 days of Ramzaan, the first day of the month of Shawwaal is celebrated as a Grand Festival.

Iftaar

Fast breaking or the first meal after sunset during Ramzaan.

Iftetaah

Opening, inauguration, beginning.

Ihraam

The state of ritual consecration of the Makkah pilgrim during which the pilgrim, wearing two seamless linen sheets, usually white, neither combs nor shaves nor hunt and observes sexual continence.

Ihtemaam

Concern, care, attention.

Ihyaa

Enlivening, revival.

Ijaazat

Permission, approval, license.

Ijtehaad

Effort, exertion.

Ilhaad

Apostasy, heresy in religion; deviation from the straight path, abandoning one's faith, becoming an unbeliever. A person accused of ilhaad is called mulhid .

Ilhaam

Inspiration, instinct.

'Ilm

Knowledge, cognition, learning, science; it refers more specifically to the special religious knowledge imparted by the Imaam or Da'i to the mumineen; “'ilman wa ‘amalan” means theoretically and practically; “taalib-e-‘ilm” means student; “'ilm-e-ladunni” means the knowledge imparted by Allah to His prophet through spiritual intuition.

Iltejaa

Recourse, seeking refuge.

Iltemaas

Request, application.

Imaam

A leader of prayers or religious leader. The term is used for the spiritual leaders descended from Ameer ul-Mumineen ‘Ali (AS) and Maulatana Faatema (AS), the Prophet's daughter, who are believed to be the legitimate successors to the Prophet. The Imaams are held to be ma'soom, completely immune from sin and error; they are generally held to be also divinely appointed and divinely guided in the discharge of their special spiritual functions. The office of Imaam is known as Imaamat.

Imaan

Faith, belief.

Imtehaan

Test, examination.

Injeel

Gospel, the divine message revealed on Prophet ‘Isaa (AS).

Ins

Man, mankind, human race, earthly spirits.

Insaaf; ‘adl

Justice, fairness, just treatment. It is one of the pillars of imaan .

Inshallaah

If Allah wishes; Allah willing; it is to be hoped so; this expression is said by every Muslim for the event or thing which is expected.

Inteqaal

Death, demise; transfer, removal.

Intehaa

End, termination, conclusion.

Intezaam

Order, regularity, methodical ness, systematic arrangement.

Iqaamat

A call preceding the obligatory prayer.

Iqraar

Confirmation, assurance, confession, admission.

Irshaad

Guidance, showing the way, instruction, advice.

Irteqaa

Ascension, progress, rise.

‘Isaa; Jesus

A Prophet of Allah and the son of Maulatana Maryam (AS), who was bestowed the miracle of healing the sick and making the dead alive.

Ishaa'at

Publication, circulation of news.

‘Ishaa il-Aakherat

Prayer of the nightfall.

Ishaaq; Isaac

The wasi and the youngest son of Prophet Ibraaheem (AS) and the father of Israa'eeli prophets till Prophet ‘Isaa (AS). He was the father of Prophet Ya'qoob. His mother was Maulatana Sarrah (AS).

Islaah

Restoration, correction; Betterment, establishment of peace.

Islaam

Submission to the will and cause of Allah.

Ismaa'eel; Ishmael

The wasi and the eldest son of Prophet Ibraaheem (AS) and the father of the Arabian race. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is the direct descendant from his holy lineage. His mother was Maulatana Haajrah (AS).

Isma‘ilis

Adherents of a branch of Shi'a Islam that believes Maulana Isma‘il, the eldest son of the Shi'a Imaam Maulana Ja‘far us-Saadiq (d. 148 AH), as his legitimate successor.

Isna ‘asharis

Twelvers, the branch of Shi'a Muslims who acknowledge twelve Imaams in lineal succession from Hazrat ‘Ali bin Abi Taalib (AS), after the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). Following Imaam Ja‘far us-Saadiq (AS) the Isna ‘asharis considered his younger son Musa al-Kaazim as their Imaam while the Isma‘ilis recognized Isma‘il, the eldest son of Imaam Ja‘far us-Saadiq, as their Imaam.

Istekhaara

Entrusting Allah with the choice between two or more options on account of not knowing which choice would be better.

Istighfaar

Asking of someone's pardon for an offence; “astahgferullaah” means I ask Allah's forgiveness.

Istimbaat

Discover the meaning under the given state of events or circumstances.

Istinjaa

Cleaning of the private parts in ritual purification (Wuzu).

I'tekaaf

Pious retreat in a mosque for a certain number of days especially in the month of Ramzaan with the observance of certain conditions and occupying oneself in namaaz and recitation of the Qur'an.

I'tesaam

Adherence, preservation, safeguarding.

Ittefaaq

Coincidence, chance, understanding.

Izn

Invitation or permission.

J

Jaahil

Ignorant, illiterate, uneducated.

Jaa'iz

Permissible, lawful.

Jaanasheen

Successor, legal guardian.

Jaanib

Side, part, section.

Jabal

Mountain.

Jabr

Compulsion, predestination; Power, might; “jabran” means forcibly or by force. “'Ilm ul-jabr” means algebra.

Jahannam

Hell.

Jahd

Effort, endeavor, attempt.

Jalaalat

Loftiness, sublimity, majesty.

Jali

Clear, plain, evident.

Jama'

Gathering, addition, holding together.

Jama‘at

Assembly or religious congregation, community.

Janaabat

Major ritual impurity.

Jannat

Garden, paradise; “saakin ul-jannat” means inhabitants of paradise or deceased person.

Jashan

Celebration.

Jazaa'ir ul-ard

Islands of the earth, this phrase was used by the Faatimi Da'wat for the twelve geographical regions in which its mission was active.

Jazeerah

Island, peninsula or a territory situated between large rivers. Applied to each of the 12 territories or geographical regions in which the pre-Faatimid Ismaili organization is reported to have divided the world for its operations, and which were defined by ethnic and linguistic parameters. In the Faatimid period, Saiyedna Qaadi Nu‘maan (QR) lists the lands of the Arabs, Byzantines, Slavs, Turks, Khazars, Hindis, Sindhis, East Africans, Abyssinians, Chinese, Persians and Berbers.

Jibra'il; Gabriel

The name of the angel that appears in the Qur'an as bringing the divine message down to Muhammad Rasulullah (SAWS). The angel appears as the constant counsellor and helper of the Prophet and was sent to every Prophet from Hazrat Aadam (AS) to the last Prophet of Islam Muhammad (SAWS).

Jihaad

Holy war. However, this term was interpreted in its root sense of ‘exertion' and came to mean an inner struggle for purification. It is one of the pillars of imaan .

Jinn

Invisible beings either harmful or helpful, that interfere with the lives of mortals.

Juloos

Sitting posture in prayer.

Jurm

Offense, crime, sin.  

K

Kaa'enaat

Universe, world, the created things.

Kaafir

Disbeliever, ungrateful, infidel.

Ka‘bah

In pre-Islamic times, a temple for worship of traditional gods. After the conquest of Mecca and re-entry into it by Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), he re-dedicated the place to the ‘ibaadat (worship) of Allah and established it as a focal point for the pilgrimage ( hajj ). It also represents the direction to which Muslims turn for ritual prayer. At one of its corner there is hajr ul-aswad or the Black Stone whose kissing ( istilaam ) is necessary for the completion of tawaaf .

Kabeerah

Major sin, such as, polytheism, fornication.

Kafaalat

Guaranty, surety or under someone's custody.

Kalaam

Speech, conversation, discussion.

Kalimah

Word. Used in the Qur'an with several meanings, chief among which is the ‘Divine Word'. It also refers to the formula for the declaration of faith also called “kalimat ush-shahaada” .

Kamaal

Perfection, completeness.

Karaahiyat

Dislike, distaste, incompatibility.

Karam

Noble heartedness, generosity, magnanimity.

Karb

Worry, sorrow, grief, trouble.

Kasb

Earnings, gain, profit; something acquired.

Kashf

Manifestation, unveiling; it is used specifically in reference to a period, called “dawr ul-kashf”, when the Imaams were manifest, or when the haqaa'iq (facts) would be no longer concealed in the baatin , in distinction from satr .

Kausar

Abundant, plentiful; a river in Paradise .

Khadeejat ul-Kubra; Maulatana

She is the daughter of Khuwaylad and the first wife of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and mother of Maulatana Faatema (AS).

Khair

Best, excellent, outstanding; blessing, wealth, advantage, charity; “khair un-naas” the best of all people; “khair ul-bashar” the best of mankind, an epithet of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and Maulana ‘Ali (AS).

Khutbah

An address or sermon delivered by a khateeb at the Friday midday prayers in the mosque; since it includes a prayer for the ruler, mention in the Khutba is a mark of sovereignty in Islaam.

Kifaayat

Sufficient amount; that which suffices for performing a duty; capacity, suitability.

L

Ladunni

Spiritual, divine; “'Ilm ul-ladunni” means the knowledge imparted directly by Allah through spiritual intuition, especially to Prophets and Imaams.

Lafz

Word, term.

Laghw

Foolish talk, nonsense, ungrammatical language.

Lahd

Grave, tomb.

Lahm

Flesh, meat.

La'nat

Curse, execration; “la'natullaahe ‘alayhe” means Allah's curse upon him.

Laqab

Nickname, sobriquet, honorific title.

Lawh-e-mahfooz

It is where the entire happenings of the world is recorded till the Day of Judgement

Lazzat

Joy, pleasure, sensual delight.

Libaas

Clothes, costume, apparel; “libaas ut-taqwaa” means decency, modesty.

Lisaan

Tongue, language; “lisaan ud-Da'wat” means the language of Da'wat (mission)

Lubb

Mind, intellect, reason.

Lughat

Language, dialect.

Lutf

Kindness, gentleness, courteousness.

 
 
 
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